Biology: The Science of Living

Biology is the part of science that deals with the study of living things and their biological processes. This branch of science deals with all types of physicochemical processes of life.

Experts providing science assignment help will state that biology comprises the cellular basis of living organisms. It also consists of the energy of metabolism that causes the life activities and the genetic inheritance of the organisms. Biology also consists of studying evolutionary relations among the organisms and different diversity of life. Together it brings the structural as well as the functional relationship, which consists of day to day activity. Biology attracts both the chemical and physical science and applies the laws of living things.

Branches of biology

For the convenience of study, biology is divided into four branches – botany, zoology, morphology, and physiology.

  • Botany – It is the branch of biology that focuses on understanding plants, including their composition, characteristics, and biochemical operations. Plant classification, the study of plant diseases, and how plants interact with their environment are also covered.
  • Zoology – It is the branch of biology responsible for studying animals in general as well as specific animals.
  • Morphology – It is the study of the magnitudes and forms of animals, plants, and microorganisms. The term describes the basic biological features of plants or animals’ part arrangement and form.
  • Physiology – Physiology is the study of the functions of tissues and cells in living things.

Basic principles of biology

There are 4 basic principles of biology – cell theory, gene theory, homeostasis, and evolutionary theory.

Cell Theory

According to the cell theory, all living things are made of cells. Every living thing is made up of just one cell at first. Some living things, such as bacteria, only have one cell. Amazingly, your body contains 100 trillion cells. But just like all other living things, you, too, started out as a single cell.

Gene Theory

Gene theory explains that genetic material is passed down from generation to generation. On larger structures known as chromosomes, genes are housed. Every cell contains chromosomes, which are made of DNA molecules (deoxyribonucleic acid). These DNA molecules contain instructions that “tell” cells what to do.


Homeostasis is the process of maintaining a constant internal environment in response to various environmental changes. The majority of living things deplete the air’s oxygen content in order to survive. On the other hand, many living things, including plants, release oxygen when they use photosynthesis to turn carbon dioxide and water into food. Because of the balance between these two processes, the oxygen content of the air remains constant.

Evolutionary Theory

Evolution is the gradual alteration of the traits of populations of living things. Natural selection, which results from sporadic genetic mutations in a population, is a process by which evolution can happen. The likelihood of these mutations resulting in changes that help the living things survive and procreate in a particular environment raises. More genes will then be passed on to the following generation. This can result in significant changes to those living things’ traits over many generations. Modern living things are derived from extinct ancient life forms, which is how evolution explains how living things are changing today.

On a concluding note,

All branches of biology are unified by four fundamental concepts or theories: cell theory, genetic material theory, homeostasis, and evolutionary theory.

  • Firstly, according to the cell theory, every living thing is made of cells and descended from other living cells.
  • Secondly, according to the gene theory, genes that are passed down from parents to children govern the traits of all living things.
  • Homeostasis, or internal balance, is something that all living things work to maintain.
  • Lastly, as organisms gain adaptations or traits that more effectively suit them to a particular environment, populations of organisms change over time as a result of the process of micro-evolution.

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